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Ability Checks

Skill Checks

Ability Score Associated Skills
Strength Athletics
Dexterity Acrobatics, Sleight of Hand, Stealth
Constitution N/A (See Con Table)
Intelligence Arcana, History, Investigation, Nature, Religion
Wisdom Animal Handling, Insight, Medicine, Perception, Survival
Charisma Deception, Intimidation, Performance, Persuasion

Difficulty Classes

Task Difficulty DC
Trivial 5
Easy 10
Moderate 15
Hard 20
Very Hard 25
Nearly Impossible 30

Ability Scores

Ability Modifiers



Strength measures bodily power and athletic training.
StrengthUsed For...Rule
ScoreDetermines modifierRefer to this chart
Carrying CapacityStrength score times 15 in pounds²
Push, Drag, or LiftUp to 2 times carrying capacity²
ModifierDetermines bonus to strength related rollsRefer to this chart
SaveOpposing a force that would physically move or bind you1d20 + STR mod + Proficiency (if proficient)
Strength CheckAny attempt to lift, push, pull, or break something, to force your body through a space, or to otherwise apply brute force to a situation.1d20 + STR mod
Breaking ManaclesDC 20 check
Breaking RopeDC 17 check
Other possible usesForce open a stuck, locked, or barred door. Push through a tunnel that is too small. Hang on to a wagon while being dragged behind it. Tip over a statue. Keep a builder from rolling.
² For each size category above medium, double the creatures carrying capacity and the amount it can pull, drag, or lift. For a tiny creature, half these weights.
² While pushing or dragging weight in excess of your carrying capacity, your speed drops to 5 feet.

Strength Skills

Below are all the skills associated with the Strength ability.


Automatic Climb a wall with plenty of handholds or a secure, knotted rope or rope ladder; swim in relatively calm water; jump a number of feet horizontally equal to half of your Strength score, or your full Strength score with a 10 foot running start; leap into the air a number of feet equal to half of (3 + your Strength modifier), or the full amount with a 10 foot running start 2
Easy Climb a wall lacking an adequate amount of handholds, tread water in rough conditions, jump a few feet farther than you normally could; during a long jump, clear an obstacle such as a low­lying hedge or wall of height ≤a fourth of the jump's distance
Moderate Climb a rope dangling from a protrusion or overhang (i.e. lacking a vertical surface to brace against), swim in rough water or against a mild current
Hard Climb a wall with very few handholds, catch yourself on a rope or other handhold in the middle or at the end of your jump, swim in violent water or against a strong current
Very Hard Climb a slippery or sheer wall with little or no handholds, climb vertically along an overhang with adequate handholds, swim in stormy waters

Feats of Strength - Other

Easy Force open a stuck or broken door, break free from weak bindings, pull a stuck or wedged object loose
Moderate Break through a wooden door reinforced with iron, hang on to a wagon while being dragged behind it
Hard Break through a heavy locked or barred door, topple a stone statue
Very Hard Break through a heavy, reinforced door such as a prison or armory door, hold a door shut against a room filling with water

1 A PC can climb and swim under normal conditions without having to make a check; however, strenuous conditions may require that they pass an Athletics check. Each foot of movement during such a check costs an extra foot of movement, or an extra 2 feet if it is considered difficult terrain. Characters with climb and swim speeds ignore the extra costs associated with movement of this type. Similarly, the horizontal and vertical distance a PC can jump without having to make a check is determined by their Strength score and modifier respectively. An Athletics check is generally only required when attempting to jump a distance farther than the amount calculate in the table above.
2 During a vertical jump a PC can extend their arms in order to achieve an extra distance equal to 1⁄2 of their height, which they can effectively add to their jump distance in order to attempt to grab on to a ledge or other handhold.


Dexterity measures agility, reflexes, and balance.
DexterityUsed For...Rule
ScoreDetermines modifierRefer to this chart
ModifierDetermines bonus to Dexterity related rollsRefer to this chart
Armor ClassCertain types of armor add all or some of your DEX mod to your AC
Initiative1d20 + DEX mod
SaveDodging out of harm's way1d20 + DEX mod + Proficiency (if proficient)
Dexterity CheckAny attempt to move nimbly, quickly, or quietly, or to keep from falling on tricky footing1d20 + DEX mod
Lock picking (with thieves tools)1d20 + DEX mod + Proficiency (if proficient)
Other possible usesControl a heavily laden cart on a steep descent. Steer a chariot around a tight turn. Disable a trap. Securely tie up a prisoner. Wriggle free of bonds. Craft a small or detailed object.
² Certain types of medium and heavy armor add disadvantage to this roll.

Dexterity Skills

Below are all the skills associated with the Dexterity ability.


Easy Walk across an icy surface, stay upright in a turbulent situation, land safely on difficult terrain
Moderate Walk along a narrow ledge, swing from a chandelier and land on your feet
Hard Cross a wildly swaying rope bridge
Very Hard Walk across a tightrope, vault over or under an enemy (through their space)

Sleight of Hand

Easy Perform simple acts of legerdemain such as palming a coin­sized object
Contest (Perception) Plant or steal an object on or from a target, conceal an object on your person


Contest (Perception) Conceal yourself from enemies, sneak past unsuspecting targets, slip away while others are distracted

Pick Lock2 - Disarm Trap2 - Other

Easy Pick a simple lock, jam a simple trap, perform a task requiring particularly dexterous hands 3
Moderate Pick a typical lock, escape from tight rope bindings, securely restrain a prisoner
Hard Pick an elaborate lock, disarm a trap of average complexity, steer a chariot around a tight corner
Very Hard Pick a masterwork lock, disarm a complex trap, escape from locked masterwork manacles
1 Generally, becoming hidden in combat requires being heavily obscured or under total cover, but ultimately the rules leave it up to your personal adjudication.
2 Proficiency with Thieves' Tools allows a player to add their proficiency bonus to checks made to open locks and disarm traps.
3 Such as Operation TM


Constitution measures health, stamina, and vital force.
ConstitutionUsed For...Rule
ScoreDetermines constitution modifierRefer to this chart
ModifierDetermines bonus to constitution related rollsRefer to this chart
Holding your breathSurvive for minutes equal to 1 + CON mod (minimum 30 seconds), then survives for rounds equal to CON mod. Next turn drops to 0 HP and is dying.
Going without foodCan go without enough food for days equal to 3 + CON mod. Each day past limit gain 1 level of exhaustion.
Determining Hit PointsCON mod added to HP at each level
Using Hit DiceCON mod added to each hit dice used during short rest
SaveEndures a disease, poison, or other hazard that saps vitality1d20 + CON mod + Proficiency (if proficient)
ConcentrationDC equal to greater of 10 or ½ of damage taken while concentrating on a spell
Going without enough waterDC 15 or gain 1 level of exhaustion.
CheckVery rarely used, but can be used to push yourself beyond normal limits
Other possible usesQuaff an entire stein of ale in one go.

Constitution Skills

Below are all the skills associated with the Constitution ability.


Easy Distracting environmental stimuli such as a wave crashing over the deck of a storm­tossed ship
Variable max(10,x) After taking damage make a Constitution Saving throw with a DC of either 10 or half of the damage taken, whichever is higher.

Forced March

Variable DC 10+X At the end of each hour a PC must make a Constitution saving throw with a DC equal to 10 + the number of hours traveled past 8. On a failed throw the PC advances one level of exhaustion.


A PC can hold their breath for a number of minutes equal to 1 + their Constitution modifier (minimum 30 seconds). When out of breath, a PC can survive for a number of rounds equal to their Constitution modifier before they drop to 0 hit points and begin to die.


A PC must eat one pound of food per day in order to subsist. They can go without food for a number of days equal to 3 + their Constitution modifier (minimum 1) before they begin to starve. This day count is reset when the PC eats their fill for a day; otherwise, the PC advances one level of exhaustion at the end of each day beyond their limit.


Automatic A PC drinking less than half the amount of water they require during the day advances one level of exhaustion at the end of the day, or two levels if they are already suffering from exhaustion.
Moderate A PC drinking more than half the amount of water they require during the day but less than the full amount must succeed on a Constitution saving throw or advance one level of exhaustion, or two levels if they are already suffering from exhaustion.
1 Constitution represents a largely passive set of 'skills' which have more to do with enduring than performing a specific action the PC can become proficient in. Therefore Constitution checks are more uncommon than other ability checks and are usually made without adding a proficiency bonus, although situational bonuses may still apply. NOTE: An ability check is different from a saving throw; players can be proficient at Constitution saving throws.
2 A PC can only travel for eight hours a day before they risk becoming exhausted.
3 A PC requires one gallon of water per day, or two if the climate is harsh.


Intelligence measures mental acuity, accuracy of recall, and the ability to reason.
IntelligenceUsed For...Rule
ScoreDetermines modifierRefer to this chart
ModifierDetermines bonus to intelligence related rollsRefer to this chart
SaveDisbelieving certain illusions and resisting mental assaults that can be refuted with logic, sharp memory, or both1d20 + Ability mod + Proficiency (if proficient)
CheckDrawing on logic, education, memory, or deductive reasoning1d20 + INT mod
Other possible usesCommunicate with a creature without words. Estimate the value of a precious item. Forge a document. Recall lore about a craft or trade. Win a game of skill.

Intelligence Skills

Below are all the skills associated with the Intelligence ability.

Arcana - History - Nature - Religion

Easy Recall widely known information; identify common people, places, objects, symbols, fauna, or flora
Moderate Recall more obscure or specific information; identify uncommon people, places, objects, symbols, fauna, or flora
Hard Recall truly esoteric or precise information; identify rare people, places, objects, symbols, fauna, or flora
Very Hard Recall information that is known only by a privileged few; identify exceedingly rare people, places, objects, symbols, fauna, or flora

Investigation - Other

Easy Identify a particularly obvious trap or a secret or coded message left by a contact, communicate a simple idea with an intelligent creature you don't share a language with, discover the true nature of a low­level illusion.
Moderate Identify a typical trap, determine time or cause of death of a recently deceased creature, estimate the material worth of an item, discover the true nature of a mid­level illusion
Hard Identify a well­hidden trap, object, or area; forge a document or identify such a document, discover the true nature of a high­level illusion
Very Hard Identify a magically­ hidden trap, object, or area; discern the purpose and process of a complicated device or system; determine the integrity of a structure, construct, or formation and identify any exploitable weak points


Wisdom measures perceptiveness, intuition, and attunement with the surrounding world.
WisdomUsed For...Rule
ScoreDetermines modifierRefer to this chart
ModifierDetermines bonus to wisdom related rollsRefer to this chart
SaveResisting effects that charm, frighten, or otherwise assault your willpower1d20 + WIS mod + Proficiency (if proficient)
CheckReading body language, understanding someone's feelings, noticing things about the environment, or caring for an injured person1d20 + WIS mod
Other possible usesGet a gut feeling about what course of action to follow. Discern whether a seemingly dead or living creature is undead.

Wisdom Skills

Below are all the skills associated with the Wisdom ability.

Insight - Perception

Easy Spot a prominent landmark or structure in the distance, hear the far­off sound of thunder signaling a coming storm, determine if a child is telling the truth
Moderate Spot a natural­obscured object or feature, eavesdrop on a conversation in the next room, discern who among a cagey group is the leader, discern the intended message of a non­verbal communication
Hard Spot a well­hidden object or feature, eavesdrop on a hushed conversation through a heavy door, guess at the enemy's next action
Very Hard Spot a nearly­ invisible object or feature, read the lips of a creature you can see but not hear
Contest (Deception) Determine if someone is lying or disguising themselves or their intentions
Contest (Stealth) Spot a creature attempting to hide, hear the movements of a hidden foe


Easy Follow a well­worn trail through a forest, follow the tracks of a creature through snow or mud, forage for a day's worth of food in a plentiful area, navigate on a clear night
Moderate Follow an abandoned or forgotten trail, track a creature through a forest, forage for a day's worth of food in a sparse area, navigate on a cloudy night, predict an oncoming storm, identify the signs of nearby creatures
Hard Track a creature over barren terrain, forage for a day's worth of food in a harsh area, navigate through an alien area on a cloudy night, predict tomorrow's weather
Very Hard Track a creature after rainfall, navigate an alien area on a stormy night

Animal Handling - Medicine - Other

Easy Calm a domesticated animal, stabilize a dying creature outside of combat, diagnose a common ailment
Moderate Calm a wild but otherwise peaceful animal, intuit an animal's emotional state, set a broken bone, perform a complex maneuver while mounted, stabilize a dying creature in the middle of combat, diagnose an uncommon ailment
Hard Intuit a hostile animal's next action, control an untrained mount, diagnose a rare ailment
Very Hard Calm a dangerous wild animal, diagnose magical and divine ailments


Charisma measures force of personality, persuasiveness, personal magnetism, social influence, and physical attractiveness.
CharismaUsed For...Rule
ScoreDetermines modifierRefer to this chart
ModifierDetermines bonus to charisma related rollsRefer to this chart
SaveWithstanding effects, such as possession, that would subsume your personality or hurl you to another plane of existence1d20 + WIS mod + Proficiency (if proficient)
CheckTrying to influence or entertain others, when you try to make an impression or tell a convincing lie, or when you are navigating a tricky social situation1d20 + Ability mod
Other possible usesFind the best person to talk to for news and gossip. Blend into a crowd to get the sense of key topics of conversation.

Charisma Skills

Below are all the skills associated with the Charisma ability.


Contest (Insight) Fast­ talk or con someone, adopt a disguise or impersonate another creature, tell a convincing lie or otherwise hide your true intentions


Easy Scare a spineless noble in to handing over their coin purse
Moderate Pry information out of an uncooperative prisoner, convince street thugs to back down from a confrontation
Hard Advise a guard that it might be best to look the other way this time around, coerce an official in to signing a document
Very Hard Frighten a creature larger than you, causing it to flee; stop an agitated mob in their tracks


Easy Routine performance such as telling a story in a tavern or around a campfire
Moderate Professional performance such as an inspiring speech or an impressive musical display which may attract the attention of a local troupe and lead to regional fame
Hard Memorable performance which may attract the attention of a local patron and lead to national fame
Very Hard Extraordinary performance which may attract the attention of distant patrons and even extraplanar beings


Easy Convince the mayor to allow your party to help, calm a distraught person
Moderate Persuade a group of highway thieves to leave in peace, convince a friendly acquaintance that you know best
Hard Convince a chamberlain to let your party see the king, inspire or rally a crown of townsfolk, negotiate a peace between warring tribes
Very Hard Convince a sphinx that you are worthy of the secrets it guards, assure a dragon you're worth more alive than dead



Condition Description
  • A blinded creature can't see and automatically fails any ability check that requires sight.
  • Attack rolls against the creature have advantage, and the creature's attack rolls have disadvantage.
  • A charmed creature can't attack the charmer or target the charmer with harmful abilities or magical effects
  • The charmer has advantage on any ability check to interact socially with the creature.
  • A deafened creature can't hear and automatically fails any ability check that requires hearing.
  • A frightened creature has disadvantage on ability checks and attack rolls while the source of its fear is within line of sight.
  • The creature can't willingly move closer to the source of its fear.
  • A grappled creature's speed becomes 0, and it can't benefit from any bonus to its speed.
  • The condition ends if the grappler is incapacitated.
  • The condition also ends if an effect removes the grappled creature from the reach of the grappler or grappling effect, such as when a creature is hurled away by the thunderwave spell.
  • An incapacitated creature can't take actions or reactions.
  • An invisible creature is impossible to see without the aid of magic or a special sense. For the purpose of hiding, the creature is heavily obscured. The creature's location can be detected by any noise it makes or any tracks it leaves.
  • Attack rolls against the creature have disadvantage, and the creature's attack rolls have advantage.
  • A paralyzed creature is incapacitated and can't move or speak.
  • The creature automatically fails Strength and Dexterity saving throws.
  • Attack rolls against the creature have advantage.
  • Any attack that hits the creature is a critical hit if the attacker is within 5 feet of the creature.
  • A petrified creature is transformed, along with an nonmagical object it is wearing or carrying, into a solid inanimate substance (usually stone). Its weight increases by a factor of ten, and it ceases aging.
  • The creature is incapacitated, can't move or speak, and is unaware of its surroundings.
  • Attack rolls against the creature have advantage.
  • The creature automatically fails Strength and Dexterity saving throws.
  • The creature has resistance to all damage.
  • The creature is immune to poison and disease, although a poison or disease already in its system is suspended, not neutralized.
  • A poisoned creature has disadvantage on attack rolls and ability checks.
  • A prone creature's only movement option is to crawl, unless it stands up and thereby ends the condition.
  • The creature has disadvantage on attack rolls.
  • An attack roll against the creature has advantage if the attacker is within 5 feet of the creature. Otherwise, the attack roll has disadvantage.
  • A restrained creature's speed becomes 0, and it can't benefit from any bonus to its speed.
  • Attack rolls against the creature have advantage, and the creature's attack rolls have disadvantage.
  • The creature has disadvantage on Dexterity saving throws.
  • A stunned creature is incapacitated, can't move, and can speak only falteringly.
  • The creature automatically fails Strength and Dexterity saving throws.
  • Attack rolls against the creature have advantage.
  • An unconscious creature is incapacitated, can't move or speak, and is unaware of its surroundings.
  • The creature drops whatever it's holding and falls prone.
  • The creature automatically fails Strength and Dexterity saving throws.
  • Attack rolls against the creature have advantage.
  • Any attack that hits the creature is a critical hit if the attacker is within 5 feet of the creature.


Level Effect
1 Disadvantage on ability checks.
2 Speed halved
3 Disadvantage on attack rolls and saving throws
4 Hit point maximum halved
5 Speed reduced to 0
6 Death

Suffering Exhaustion

Cause Details
Forced March For each hour spent traveling past 8 hours make a CON save at DC 10 + 1 for each hour past 8. On a failed save, a character suffers 1 level of exhaustion.
Starvation If a creature doesn't eat enough food in a day, they start to starve. Food can be stretched out by eating half as much per day, which counts as half a day without food. A character can go without food for a number of days equal to 3 + CON mod, and then at the end of each day beyond that a character automatically suffers 1 level of exhaustion. A normal day of eating reduces the days without food to 0.
Dehydration A creature who drinks less than half as much water than they need in a day must succeed on a DC 15 CON save or suffer 1 level of exhaustion. A character with access to even less water automatically suffers 1 level of exhaustion at the end of the day. If a character already has any levels of exhaustion, they gain 2 levels in either case.
Barbarian's Frenzy A Barbarian who goes down the Path of the Berserker can choose to enter a frenzy if he is raging. When the rage ends, he suffers a level of exhaustion.

Reducing Levels of Exhaustion
At the end of a long rest, provided a character has had enough food and water that day, they reduce their level of exhaustion by 1.

Damage Types

Type Description
Acid Corrosive substances, magical or alchemical
Bludgeoning Blunt force hits (hammer, falling, etc)
Cold Extreme low temperature and magic attacks
Fire Fire breaths and fire based spells and magic
Force Pure magical energy focused in damaging form
Lightning lightning bolt, or electricity spells.
Necrotic Dealt by certain undeads and corrupted magic
Piercing Puncturing and impaling attacks and weapon
Poison Venomous stings, spores, substances and gases
Psychic Mental attacks and damage like psionic abilities
Radiant Holy damage, like divine spells or creatures
Slashing Swords, axes, and monster claws that slash
Thunder Concussive burst of sound or shock wave

Damage Severity and Level

Character Level Setback Dangerous Deadly
1st-4th 1d10 2d10 4d10
5th-10th 2d10 4d10 10d10
11th-16th 4dl0 10d10 18d10
17th-20th 10d10 18d10 24d10


Cover Type Effect
1/2 cover +2 bonus to AC and Dexterity saving throws against attacks and effects that originate on the opposite side of the cover.
3/4 cover +5 bonus to AC and Dexterity saving throws against attacks and effects that originate on the opposite side of the cover.
Full cover Can't be targeted by an attack or a spell.

Actions In Combat

Action Description
Attack Make one¹ melee or ranged attack, a grapple, or a shove.
Cast a Spell Casts a spell with a casting time of 1 action.
Dash Gain extra movement equal to your speed for this turn, applying any modifiers.
Disengage Your movement doesn't provoke opportunity attacks for the rest of the turn.
Dodge Until the start of your next turn, any attacks against you are made with disadvantage provided you can see the attacker, and you have advantage on DEX saves. You lose this benefit if you are incapacitated or your speed drops to 0.
Help Creature you help gains advantage on next ability check to perform the task you are assisting with, or help with attack roll if enemy is within 5 feet of you.
Hide You make a stealth check. Details here.
Ready Prepare to do something when a specific trigger occurs. Details here.
Search Make either a perception or investigation check in an attempt to locate something.
Use an Object Interacting with a second object on your turn (the first is free), or a more complicated object.
Climb onto a Bigger Creature² Athletics or Acrobatics check opposed by creature's Acrobatics check. Details here.
Disarm² Use an attack to make attack roll opposed by target's Athletics or Acrobatics check. Target has advantage if holding the item with 2 or more hands.
Mark² When you make a melee attack and hit, you can mark them. Your opportunity attacks against the creature have advantage and don't expend your reaction, however you may only make 1 attack in this manner.
Overrun² As an action or bonus action make Athletics check opposed by hostile's Athletics. If you win, you can move through the hostile's space once this turn.
Shove aside² Use shove to push target to the side rather than away. Details here.
Tumble² As an action or bonus action make Acrobatics check opposed by hostile's Acrobatics. If you win, you can move through the hostile's space once this turn.
¹ Certain features allow you to make more than one attack, grapple, or shove with this action.
² These actions are optional and can be found on pages 271-272 of the DMG.

The Rules of Stealth

When attempting to hide, there are 4 simple rules to remember.
  1. 1) If someone can see you, you can't attempt to hide from them.
  2. 2) Someone doesn't see you when they're not looking at you.
  3. 3) Once hidden, you can be detected via sight, hearing, or both, so don't be seen or heard. If their perception check or passive perception is higher than your stealth roll, they detect you.
  4. 4)You can hide in plain sight, given a moment of being unseen or unattended and an appropriate concealment strategy
If you are hidden, or when someone can't see you, you have advantage on attack rolls against them, and they have disadvantage on attack rolls against you. If you make an attack while hidden, regardless of whether it hits or misses, you are no longer hidden.

Grappling, Shoving, and Climbing onto Bigger Creatures

When you take the attack action you can use one attack to grapple, shove, or climb onto an enemy.
You can grab a creature which is no more than one size category higher than you. Using at least one free hand, you make an Athletics check contested by the target's Athletics or Acrobatics check. If you succeed, the target is now grappled by you. You can also grapple an enemy to climb on top of it.
Escaping a grapple.
While grappled, a creature can use its action to make an Athletics or Acrobatics check opposed by your Athletics check. If the creature succeeds, it moves to a space next to you.
Moving a grappled creature.
When you move, you can drag or carry the grappled creature with you, but your speed is halved, unless the creature is two or more sizes smaller than you.
Using the attack action, you can attempt to shove a creature no more than one size larger than you. You make an Athletics check opposed by its Athletics or Acrobatics check. If you succeed you either move it 5 feet in any direction or knock it prone.
Climbing onto Bigger Creatures
A suitably large creature can be treated as terrain for the purpose of jumping onto its back or clinging to a limb. Once you make any ability checks necessary to get into position and to get onto the bigger creature, the smaller creature uses its action to make an Athletics or Acrobatics check contested by the targets Acrobatics check. If it wins the contest, the smaller creature successfully moves into the target creature's space and clings to his body. While in the target's space, the smaller creature moves with the target and has advantage on attack rolls against it.
    The smaller creature can move around within the larger creature's space, treating the space as difficult terrain. The larger creature may or may not be able to attack the smaller creature, depending on the smaller creature's location, this is up to the DM. The larger creature can try to dislodge the creature as an action - shaking it off, scraping it against a wall, grabbing and throwing it off - by making an Athletics check opposed by the smaller creature's Athletics or Acrobatics check.

Readying an Action

    As an action on your turn, you can take the Ready action so that you may act later in the round using your reaction. To do this, you need to clearly define 2 things.
    First, you must decide what circumstances will trigger your prepared action. For example, you could say that the trigger is "A hostile creature comes through the door in front of me".
    Second, you must decide what you will do if the triggering event happens. You may take an action such as the attack action or you may move up to your speed. For example, you could say "I will attack with my greatsword".
    When you put both the trigger and the action together you get a coherent sentence. The example is "If a hostile creature comes through the door in front of me, I will attack with my greatsword".
    Readying A Spell. When you ready a spell, you cast it as normal but hold its energy, which you then release with your reaction. To be readied a spell must have a casting time of 1 action, and holding onto the spell's magic requires concentration. If your concentration is broken the spell dissipates.

Dropping to 0 Hit Points

Death Saving Throws
When you start your turn at 0 hit points, you need to make a death saving throw. Rolling 9 and below counts as a failure, and 10 and above counts as a success. If you accrue 3 failures before 3 successes, you die. If you accrue 3 successes, you are stabilized. If you regain any hit points, both your successes and failures are reset.
Rolling 1 or 20.
When you make a death saving throw and roll a 1 on the d20, it counts as two failures. If you roll a 20 on the d20, you regain 1 hit point.
Damage at 0 Hit Points.
If you take any damage while you have 0 hit points, you suffer a death saving throw failure. If the damage is from a critical hit, you suffer two failures instead. If the damage equals or exceeds your hit point maximum, you suffer instant death.
Instant Death
Massive damage can kill you instantly. When damage reduces you to 0 hit points and there is damage remaining, you die if the remaining damage equals or exceeds your hit point maximum. For example, a cleric with a maximum of 12 hit points currently has 6 hit points. If she takes 18 damage from an attack, she is reduced to 0 hit points, but 12 damage remains. Because the remaining damage equals her hit point maximum, the cleric dies.
Falling Unconscious
If damage reduces you to 0 hit points and fails to kill you, you fall unconscious. This unconsciousness ends if you regain any hit points.
Stabilizing a Creature
The best way to save a creature with 0 hit points is to heal it. If healing is unavailable, the creature can at least be stabilized so that it isn't killed by a failed death saving throw. You can use your action to administer first aid to an unconscious creature and attempt to stabilize it, which requires a successful DC 10 Medicine check. A stable creature doesn't make death saving throws, even though it has 0 hit points, but it does remain unconscious. The creature stops being stable, and must start making death saving throws again, if it takes any damage. A stable creature that isn't healed regains 1 hit point after 1d4 hours.

Wild Magic

Immediately after you cast a sorcerer spell of 1st level or higher, the DM can have you roll a d20. If you roll a 1, roll on the Wild Magic Surge table to create a random magical effect.

Wild Magic Surge

d100 Effect
01-02 Roll on this table at the start of each of your turns for the next minute, ignoring this result on subsequent rolls.
03-04 For the next minute, you can see any invisible creature if you have line of sight to it.
05-06 A modron chosen and controlled by the DM appears in an unoccupied space within 5 feet of you, then disappears 1 minute later.
07-08 You cast fireball as a 3rd level spell centered on yourself.
09-10 You cast magic missile as a 5th level spell.
11-12 Roll a d10. Your height changes by a number of inches equal to the roll. If the roll is odd, you shrink. If the roll is even, you grow.
13-14 You cast confusion centered on yourself.
15-16 For the next minute, you regain 5 hit points at the start of each of your turns.
17-18 You grow a long beard made of feathers that remains until you sneeze, at which point the feathers explode out from your face.
19-20 You cast grease centered on yourself.
21-22 Creatures have disadvantage on saving throws against the next spell you cast in the next minute that involves a saving throw.
23-24 Your skin turns a vibrant shade of blue. A remove curse spell can end this effect.
25-26 An eye appears on your forehead for the next minute. During that time, you have advantage on Wisdom (Perception) checks that rely on sight.
27-28 For the next minute, all your spells with a casting time of 1 action have a casting time of 1 bonus action.
29-30 You teleport up to 60 feet to an unoccupied space of your choice that you can see.
31-32 You are transported to the Astral Plane until the end of your next turn, after which time you return the to the space you previously occupied or the nearest unoccupied space if that space is occupied.
33-34 Maximize the damage of the next damaging spell you cast within the next minute.
35-36 Roll a d10. Your age changes by a number of years equal to the roll. If the roll is odd, you get younger (minimum 1 year old). If the roll is even, you get older.
37-38 1d6 flumphs controilled by the DM appear in unoccupied space within 60 feet of you and are frightened of you. They vanish after 1 minute.
39-40 You regain 2d10 hit points.
41-42 You turn into a potted plant until the start of your next turn. While a plant, you are incapacitated and have vulnerability to all damage. If you drop to 0 hit points, your pot breaks, and your form reverts.
43-44 For the next minute, you can teleport up to 20 feet as a bonus action on each of your turns.
45-46 You cast levitate on yourself.
47-48 A unicorn controlled by the DM appears in a space within 5 feet of you, then disappears 1 minute later.
49-50 You can't speak for the next minute. Whenever you try, pink bubbles float out of your mouth.
51-52 A spectral shield hovers near you for the next minute, granting you a +2 bonus to AC and immunity to magic missile.
53-54 You are immune to being intoxicated by alcohol for the next 5d6 days.
55-56 Your hair falls out but grows back within 24 hours.
57-58 For the next minute, any flammable object you touch that isn't being worn or carried by another creature bursts into flame.
59-60 You regain your lowest-level expended spell slot.
61-62 For the next minute, you must shout when you speak.
63-64 You cast fog cloud centered on yourself.
65-66 Up to three creatures you choose within 30 feet of you take 4d10 lightning damage.
67-68 You are frightened by the nearest creature until the end of your next turn.
69-70 Each creature within 30 feet of you becomes invisible for the next minute. THe invisibility ends on a creature when it attacks or casts a spell.
71-72 You gain resistance to all damage for the next minute.
73-74 A random creature within 60 feet of you becomes poisoned for 1d4 hours.
75-76 You glow with bright light in a 30-foot radius for the next minute. Any creature that ends its turn within 5 feet of you is blinded untiul the end of its next turn.
77-78 You cast polymorph on yourself. If you fail the saving throw, you turn into a sheep for the spells duration.
79-80 Illusory butterflies and flower petals flutter in the air within 10 feet of you for the next minute.
81-82 You can take one additional action immediately
83-84 Each creature within 30 feet of you takes 1d10 necrotic damage. You regain hit points equal to the sum of the necrotic damage dealt.
85-86 You cast mirror image.
87-88 You cast fly on a random creature within 60 feet of you.
89-90 You become invisible for the next minute. During that time, other creatures can't hear you. The invisibility ends if you attack or cast a spell.
91-92 If you die within the next minute, you immediately come back to life as if by the reincarnate spell.
93-94 Your size increases by one size category for the next minute.
95-96 You and all creatures within 30 feet of you gain vulnerability to piercing damage for the next minute.
97-98 You are surrounded by faint, ethereal music for the next minute.
99-00 You regain all expended sorcery points.


Character Leveling Requirements

Experience Points Level Proficiency Bonus
0 1 +2
300 2 +2
900 3 +2
2,700 4 +2
6,500 5 +3
14,000 6 +3
23,000 7 +3
34,000 8 +3
48,000 9 +4
64,000 10 +4
85,000 11 +4
100,000 12 +4
120,000 13 +5
140,000 14 +5
165,000 15 +5
195,000 16 +5
225,000 17 +6
265,000 18 +6
305,000 19 +6
355,000 20 +6

Currency Exchange Rates


Adventuring Services

Service Pay
Coach Cab
    Between Towns 3 cp/mile
Within a City 1 cp
    Skilled 2 gp/day
    Unskilled 2 sp/day
Messenger 2 cp/mile
Road/Gate Toll 1 cp
Ship's Passage 1 sp/mile
First Level Spell1 10-30gp + components
Second Level Spell1 30-50gp + components
Third+ Level Spell2 How much ya got?3

1 First and second level spellscasting services are easy enough to find in a decently sized city or town.
2 Third level and higher spells are much more rare and can only be found with any amount of regularity in a large city, perhaps home to a University or Temple.
3 Often times a spellcaster might ask for a service rather than monetary payment.

Lifestyle Expenses

Lifestyle Price/Day
Wretched -
Squalid 1 sp
Poor 2 sp
Modest 1 gp
Comfortable 2 gp
Wealthy 4 gp
Aristocratic 10 gp minimum

Food, Drink, and Lodging

    Gallon2 sp
    Mug4 cp
Banquet (per person)10 gp
Bread, loaf2 cp
Cheese, hunk1 sp
Inn stay (per day)
    Squalid7 cp
    Poor1 sp
    Modest5 sp
    Comfortable8 sp
    Wealthy2 gp
    Aristocratic4 gp
Meals (per day)
    Squalid3 cp
    Poor6 cp
    Modest3 sp
    Comfortable5 sp
    Wealthy8 sp
    Aristocratic2 gp
Meat, chunk3 sp
Common (pitcher)2 sp
Fine (bottle)10 gp

Map Travel Paces

Below are guidelines for traveling in different sized map areas at different paces (slow, normal, and fast.)


Slow PaceNormal PaceFast Pace
20 sq./min30 sq./min40 sq./min
1 square = 10 feet


Slow PaceNormal PaceFast Pace
2 sq./min3 sq./min4 sq./min
1 square = 100 feet


Slow PaceNormal PaceFast Pace
2 hexes/hour
18 hexes/day
3 hexes/hour
24 hexes/day
4 hexes/hour
30 hexes/day
1 hex = 1 miles


Slow PaceNormal PaceFast Pace
1 hex/3 hours
3 hexes/day
1 hex/2 hours
or 4 hexes/day
1 hex/1.5 hours
5 hexes/day
1 hex = 6 miles

Travel Paces

Below are guidelines for how fast a PC can travel on foot in actual distances at different paces (slow, normal and fast.)


400 ft4 miles30 miles-5 to passive perception score


300 ft3 miles24 miles--


200 ft2 miles18 milesAble to stealth

Calculating Your Party's Pace

Minute Hour Day Pace Effect
Speed X 10 ft. Speed ÷10 mi. Speed X 0.6 mi. Effect based on pace

Pace Effects

Slow Normal Fast
Use 2/3 base speed, able to stealth No effect Use 1.33 base speed, -5 passive perception

Encounter Distances

Below are guidelines on when to start an encounter based on terrain, audible distances, and outdoor visibility.


Encounter Distance

Arctic, desert, farmland, or grassland 6d6 x 10 feet
Forest, swamp, or woodland 2d8 x 10 feet
Hills or wastelands 2d10 x 10 feet
Jungle 2d6 x 10 feet
Mountains 4d10 x 10 feet

Audible Distance

Trying to be quiet 2d6 x 5 feet
Normal noise level 2d6 x 10 feet
Very loud 2d6 x 50 feet

Visibility Outdoors

Clear day, no obstructions 2 miles
Rain 1 mile
Fog 100 to 300 feet
From a height x 20

Vision and Light

Lightly ObscuredDisadvantage on Perception checks relying on sightDim light, patchy fog, moderate foliage
Heavily ObscuredBlinded conditionDarkness, opaque fog, dense foliage

Light Sources

Source Bright Light Dim Light 1 hour

Mundane Sources

Candle 5 feet +5 feet 6 hours
Lamp 15 feet +30 feet 6 hours
Lantern, bullseye 60 foot cone +60 feet 6 hours
Lantern, hooded
    Lowered Hood
30 feet
+30 feet
    + 5 feet
6 hours
Torch 20 feet +20 feet 1 hour

Magic Sources

Continual Flame 20 feet +20 feet -
Dancing Lights - 10 feet 1 minute
Faerie Fire - 10 feet 1 minute
Flame Blade 10 feet + 10 feet 10 minutes
Flaming Sphere 20 feet +20 feet 1 minute
Holy Aura - 5 feet 1 minute
Light 20 feet +20 feet 1 hour
Moonbeam - 5 ft cyl 1 minute
Prismatic Wall 100 feet +100 feet 10 minutes
Wall of Fire 60 feet +60 feet 1 minute

Trap Save DCs and Attack Bonuses

Trap Danger Save DC Attack Bonus
Setback 10-11 +3 to +5
Dangerous 12-15 +6 to +8
Deadly 16-20 +9 to +12

Damage Severity and Level

Character Level Setback Dangerous Deadly
1st-4th 1d10 2d10 4d10
5th-10th 2d10 4d10 10d10
11th-16th 4dl0 10d10 18d10
17th-20th 10d10 18d10 24d10

Targets in Area of Effect

Area Number of Targets
Cone Size / 10 (round up)
Cube or Square Size / 5 (round up)
Cylinder Radius / 5 (round up)
Line Length / 30 (round up)
Sphere or Circle Radius / 5 (round up)

Improvising Damage

Damage Example
1d10 Burned by coals, hit by a falling bookcase, pricked by a poison needle
2d10 Being struck by lightning, stumbling into a fire pit
4d10 Hit by falling rubble in a collapsing tunnel, stumbling into a vat of acid
10d10 Crushed by compacting walls, hit by whirling steel blades, wading through a lava stream
18d10 Being submerged in lava, being hit by a crashing flying fortress
24d10 Tumbling into a vortex of fire on the Elemental Plane of Fire, being crushed in the jaws of a godlike creature or a moon-sized monster

Object Armor Class


Object Hit Points

    Bottle, Lock
    Chest, Chain
    Barrel, Chandelier
    Cart, Window
    Wagon, Hut
DM's Discretion


Short Rest:
Full Text: A short rest is a period of downtime, at least 1 hour long, during which a character does nothing more strenuous that eating, drinking, reading, and tending to wounds. A character can spend one or more Hit Dice at the end of a short rest, up to the character's maximum number of Hit Dice, which is equal to the character's level. For each Hit Dice spent in this way, the player rolls the die and adds the character's Constitution modifier to it. The character regains hit points equal to the total. The player can decide to spend an additional Hit Die after each roll. A character regains some spent Hit Dice upon finishing a long rest, as explained below.
Long Rest:
Full Text: A long rest is a period of extended downtime, at least 8 hours long, during which a character sleeps or performs light activity: reading, talking, eating or standing watch for no more than 2 hours. If the rest in interrupted by a period of strenuous activity-at least 1 hour of waking, fighting, casting spells, or similar adventuring activity- the characters must begin the rest again to gain any benefit from it. At the end of a long rest, a character regains all lost hit points. The character also regains spent Hit Dice, up to a number of dice equal to half of the character's total number of them. For example, if a character has eight Hit Dice, he or she can regain four spent Hit Dice upon finishing a long rest. A character can't benefit from more than one long rest in a 24-hour period, and a character must have at least 1 hit point at the start of the rest to gain its benefits.


Weather Chart

1-14Normal for the season
15-171d4 x 10 degrees Fahrenheit colder than normal
18-201d4 x 10 degrees Fahrenheit hotter than normal
13-17Light rain or light snowfall
18-20Heavy rain or heavy snowfall


Standard Languages

LanguageTypical SpeakersScript
GiantOgres, giantsDwarvish

Exotic Languages

LanguageTypical SpeakersScript
DraconicDragons, dragonbornDraconic
Deep SpeechMind Flayers, Beholders
SylvanFey creaturesElvish
UndercommonUnderdark tradersElvish

Random Tables

Quick Find

d12 Find
1 Artwork
2 Body
3 Food or drink
4 Jewelry
5 Key
6 Letter
7 Magic herbs
8 Map
9 Monster parts
10 Secret message
11 Signet or insignia
12 Tome

Something Happened

d20 Event
1 A door opens
2 A fire starts
3 A meteor shoots across the sky
4 A monster appears
5 A screech pierces the air
6 A storm begins
7 A strange star appears in the sky
8 A strong gust of wind blows through
9 A tremor shakes the ground
10 Someone experiences déjà vu
11 Someone gets angry
12 Someone glimpses the future
13 Someone has a sense of foreboding
14 Someone has to go to the bathroom
15 Something spills or falls to the ground
16 Something isn't where it's supposed to be
17 The lights go out
18 The sun comes out
19 There's a foul smell in the air
20 Unexplained magic occurs

Dungeon Hazards

d20 Hazard
1-3 Brown Mold
4-8 Green slime
9-10 Shrieker
11-15 Spiderwebs
16-17 Violet fungus
18-20 Yellow mold

Dungeon Obstacles

d20 Obstacle
1 Antilife aura with a radius of 1d10 x 10 ft.; while in the aura, living creatures can't regain hit points
2 Battering winds reduce speed by half, impose disadvantage on ranged attack rolls
3 Blade barrier blocks passage
4-8 Cave-in
9-12 Chasm 1d4 x 10 ft. wide and 2d6 x 10 ft. deep, possibly connected to other levels of the dungeon
13-14 Flooding leaves 2d10 ft. of water in the area; create nearby upward-sloping passages, raised floors, or rising stairs to contain the water
15 Lava flows through the area (50% chance of a stone bridge crossing it)
16 Overgrown mushrooms block progress and most be hacked down (25% chance of a mold or fungus dungeon hazard hidden among them)
18 Poisonous gas (deals 1d6 poison damage per minute of exposure)
18 Reverse gravity effect causes creatures to fall towards the ceiling
19 Wall of fire blocks passage
20 Wall of force blocks passage

Trap Trigger

d6 Trigger
1 Stepped on (floor, stairs)
2 Moved through (doorway, hallway)
3 Touched (doorknob, statue)
4 Opened (door, treasure chest)
5 Looked at (mural, arcane symbo)
6 Moved

Trap Severity

d6 Severity
1-2 Setback
3-5 Dangerous
6 Deadly
Use these charts to determine attack bonus, save DC, and damage for the trap.

Trap Effect

d100 Effect
01-04 Magic missiles shoot from a statue or object
05-07 Collapsing staircase creates a ramp that deposits characters into a pit at its lower end`
08-10 Ceiling block falls, or entire ceiling collapses
11-12 Ceiling lowers slowly into locked room
13-14 Chute opens in floor
15-16 Clanging noise attracts nearby monsters
17-19 Touching an object triggers a disintegrate spell
20-23 Door or other object is coated with contact poison
24-27 Fire shoots out from wall, floor, or object
28-30 Touching an object triggers a flesh to stone spell
31-33 Floor collapses or is an illusion
34-36 Vent releases gas: blinding, acidic, obscuring, paralyzing, poisonous, or sleep-inducing
37-39 Floor tiles are electrified
40-43 Glyph of warding
44-46 Huge wheeled statue rolls down corridor
47-49 Lightning bolt shoots from wall or object
50-52 Locked room floods with water or acid
53-56 Darts shoot out of an opened chest
57-59 A weapon, suit of armor, or rug animates and attacks when touched (see "Animated objects" in the Monster Manual)
60-62 Pendulum, either bladed or weighted as a maul, swings across the room or hall
63-67 Hidden pit opens beneath characters (25% chance that a black pudding or gelatinous cube fills the bottom of the pit)
68-70 Hidden pit floods with acid or fire
71-73 Locking pit floods with water
74-77 Scything blade emerges from wall or object
78-81 Spears (possibly poisoned) spring out
82-84 Brittle stairs collapse over spikes
85-88 Thunderwave knocks characters into a pit or spikes
89-91 Steel or stone jaws restrain a character
92-94 Stone block smashes across hallway
95-97 Symbol
98-00 Walls slide together

Trick Objects

d20 Object
1 Book
2 Brain preserved in a jar
3 Burning fire
4 Cracked gem
5 Door
6 Fresco
7 Furniture
8 Glass sculpture
9 Mushroom field
10 Painting
11 Plant or tree
12 Pool of water
13 Runes engraved on wall or floor
14 Skull
15 Sphere of magical energy
16 Statue
17 Stone Obelisk
18 Suit of armor
19 Tapestry or Rug
20 Target Dummy

d100 Trick Effect
01-06 Ages the first person to touch the object
04-06 The touched object animates, or it animates other objects nearby
07-10 Asks three skill-testing questions (if all three are answered correctly a reward appears)
11-13 Bestows resistances or vulnerability
14-16 Changes a character's alignment, personality, size, appearance, or sex when touched
17-19 Changes one substance into another, such as gold to lead or metal to brittle crystal
20-22 Creates a force field
23-26 Creates an illusion
27-29 Supresses magic items for a time
30-32 Enlarges or reduces characters
33-35 >Magic mouth speaks a riddle
36-38 Confusion (targets all creatures within 10 ft.)
39-41 Gives directions (true or false)
42-44 Grants a wish
45-47 Flies about to avoid being touched
48-50 Casts geas on the characters
51-53 Increases, reduces, negates, or reverses gravity
54-56 Induces greed
57-59 Contains an imprisoned creature
60-62 Locks or unlocks exits
63-65 Offers a game of chance, with the promise of a reward or valuable information
66-68 Helps or harms certain types of creatures
69-71 Casts polymorph on the characters (lasts 1 hour)
72-75 Presents a puzzle or riddle
76-78 Prevents movement
79-81 Releases coins, false coins, gems, false gems, a magic item, or a map
82-84 Releases, summons, or turns into a monster
85-87 Casts suggestion on the characters
88-90 Wails loudly when touched
91-93 Talks (normal speech, nonsense, poetry and rhymes, singing, spellcasting, or screaming)
94-97 Teleports characters to another place
98-00 Swaps two or more character's minds

Dungeon Dressing


d100 Effect
01-05 Bang or slam
06 Bellowing
07 Buzzing
08-10 Chanting
11 Chiming
12 Chirping
13 Clanking
14 Clashing
15 Clicking
16 Coughing
17-18 Creaking
19 Drumming
20-23 Footsteps ahead
24-26 Footsteps approaching
27-29 Footsteps behind
30-31 Footsteps receding
32-33 Footsteps to the side
34-35 Giggling (faint)
36 Gong
37-39 Grating
40-41 Groaning
42 Grunting
43-44 Hissing
45 Horn or trumpet sounding
46 Howling
47-48 Humming
49 Jingling
50-53 knocking
54-55 Laughter
56-57 Moaning
58-60 Murmuring
61-62 Music
63 Rattling
64 Ringing
65-687 Rustling
69-72 Scratching or scrabbling
73-74 Screaming
75-77 Scuttling
78 Shuffling
79-80 Slithering
81 Snapping
82 Sneezing
83 Sobbing
84 Splashing
85 Splintering
86-87 Squeaking
88 Squealing
89-90 Tapping
91-92 Thud
93-94 Thumping
95 Tinkling
96 Twanging
97 Whining
98 Whispering
99-00 Whistling


d100 Effect
01-60 Clear and damp
61-70 Clear and drafty
71-80 Clear but cold
81-83 Foggy or misty and cold
84-85 Clear, with mist covering floor
86-90 Clear and warm
91-93 Hazy and humid
95-96 Smoky or steamy
97-98 Clear, with smoke covering ceiling
99-00 Cleary and windy


d100 Effect
01-03 Acrid
04-05 Chlorine
06-39 Dank or moldy
40-49 Earthy
50-57 Manure
58-61 Metallic
62-65 Ozone
66-70 Putrid
71-75 Rotting vegetation
76-77 Salty and wet
78-82 Smoky
83-89 Stale
90-95 Sulfurous
96-00 Urine

General Features

d100 Item
01 Arrow, broken
02-04 Ashes
05-06 Bones
07 Bottle, broken
08 Chain, corroded
09 Club, splintered
10-019 Cobwebs
20 Coin, copper
21-22 Cracks, ceiling
23-24 Cracks, floor
25-26 Cracks, wall
27 Dagger hilt
28-29 Damp ceiling
30-33 Dampness, wall
34 Dried blood
35-41 Dripping blood
42-44 Dung
45-49 Dust
50 Flask, cracked
51 Food scraps
52 Fungi (common)
53-55 guano
56 hair or fur
57 Hammer head, cracked
58 Helmet, badly dented
59 Iron bar, bent and rusted
60 Javelin head, blunt
61 Leather boot
62-64 Leaves and twigs
65-68 Mold (common)
69 Pick handle
70 Pole, broken (5 ft. long)
71 Pottery shards
72-73 Rags
74 Rope, rotten
75-76 Rubble and dirt
77 Sack, torn
78-80 Slime (harmless)
81 Spike, rusted
82-83 Sticks
84 Stones, small
85 Straw
86 Sword blade, broken
87 Teeth or fangs, scattered
88 Torch stub
89 Wall Scratching
90-91 Water, large puddle
92-93 Water, small puddle
94-95 Water, trickle
96 Wax blob (candle stub)
97 Wax drippings
98-00 Wood pieces, rotting

General Furnishing

d100 Item
01 Altar
02 Armchair
03 Armoire
04 Arras or curtain
05 Bag
06 Barrel (40 gallon)
07-08 Bed
09 Bench
10 Blanket
11 Box (large)
12 Brazier and charcoal
13 Bucket
14 Buffet cabinet
15 Bunks
16 Butt (huge cask, 125 gallons)
17 Cabinet
18 Candleabrum
19 Carpet (large)
20 Cask (40 gallons)
21 Chandelier
22 Charcoal
23-24 Chair, plain
25 Chair, padded
26 Chair, padded, or divan
27 Chest, large
28 Chest, medium
29 Chest of drawers
30 Closet (wardrobe)
31 Coal
32-33 Couch
34 Crate
35 Cresset
36 Cupboard
37 Cushion
38 Dais
39 Desk
40-42 Fireplace and wood
43 Fireplace with mantle
44 Firkin (small cask, 10 gallons)
45 Fountain
46 Fresco
47 Grindstone
48 Hamper
49 Hassock
50 Hogshead (large cask, 65 gallons)
51 Idol (large)
52 Keg (small barrel, 20 gallons)
53 Loom
54 Mat
55 Mattress
56 Pail
57 Painting
58-60 Pallet
61 Pedestal
62-64 Pegs
65 Pillow
66 Pipe (large cask, 105 gallons)
67 Quilt
68-70 Rug (small or medium)
71 Rushes
72 Sack
73 Sconce
74 Screen
75 Sheet
76-77 Shelf
78 Shrine
79 Sideboard
80 Sofa
81 Staff, normal
82 Stand
83 Statue
84 Stool, high
85 Stool, normal
86 Table, large
87 Table, long
88 Table, low
89 Table, round
90 Table, small
91 Table, trestle
92 Tapestry
93 Throne
94 Trunk
95 Tub
96 Tun (huge cask, 250 gallons)
97 Urn
98 Wall basin and font
99 Wood billets
00 Workbench

Religious Articles and Furnishings

d100 Item
01-05 Altar
06-08 Bells
09-11 Brazier
12 Candelabra
13-14 Candels
15 Candlesticks
16 Cassocks
17 Chimes
18-19 Cloth, altar
20-23 Columns or pillars
24 Curtain or tapestry
25 Drum
26-27 Font
28-29 Gong
30-35 Holy or unholy symbol
36-37 Holy or unholy writings
38-43 Idol
44-48 Incense Burner
49 Kneeling bench
50-53 Lamp
54 Lectern
55 Mosaic
56-58 Offertory container
59 Paintings or frescoes
60-61 Pews
62 Pipes, musical
63 Prayer rug
64 Pulpit
65 Rail
66-69 Robes
70-71 Screen
72-76 Shrine
77 Side chairs
78-79 Stand
80-82 Statue
83 Throne
84-85 Thurible
86-90 Tripod
91-97 Vestments
98-99 Votive light
00 Whistle

Mage Furnishings

d100 Item
01-03 Alembic
04-05 Balance and weights
06-09 Beaker
10 Bellows
11-14 Book
15-16 Bottle
17 Bowl
18 Box
19-22 Brazier
23 Cage
24 Candle
25-26 Candlestick
27-28 Cauldron
29-30 Chalk
31-32 Crucible
33 Crystal ball
34 Decanter
35 Desk
36 Dish
37-40 Flask or jar
41 Funnel
42 Furnace
43-44 Herbs
45 Horn
46-17 Hourglass
48-49 Jug
50 Kettle
51 Ladle
52 Lamp or lantern
53 Lens (concave or convex)
54 Magic circle
55 Mortar and pestle
56 Pan
57-58 Parchment
59 Pentacle
60 Pentagram
61 Pipe, smoking
62 Pot
63 Prism
64-65 Quill
66-68 Retort
69 Rod, mixing or stirring
70-72 Scroll
73 Sexton
74-75 Skull
76 Spatula
77 Spoon, measuring
78 Stand
79 Stool
80 Stuffed animal
81 Tank (container)
82 Tongs
83 Tripod
84 Tube (container)
85-86 Tube (piping)
87 Tweezers
88-90 Vial
91 Water clock
92 Wire
93-00 Workbench

Utensils and Personal Items

d100 Item
01 Awl
02 Bandages
03 Basin
04-05 Basket
06-07 Book
08-09 Bottle
10 Bowl
11 Box
12-13 Brush
14 Candle
15 Candle snuffer
16 Candlestick
17 Cane or walking stick
18 Case
19 Casket (small)
20-21 Coffer
22 Cologne or perfume
23 Comb
24 Cup
25 Decanter
26-27 Dish
28 Ear spoon
29 Ewer
30 Flagon, mug, or tankard
31-32 Flask or jar
33 Food
34 Fork
35 Grater
36 Grinder
37 Horn, drinking
38 Hourglass
39 Jug or pitcher
40 Kettle
41 Key
42 Knife
43 Knucklebones or dice
44 Ladle
45-46 Lamp or lantern
47-48 Mirror
49 Needle(s)
50 Oil, cooking
51 Oil, fuel
52 Oil, scented
53 Pan
54-55 Parchment
56 Pipe, musical
57 Pipe, smoking
58 Plate, platter, or saucer
59 Pot
60-61 Pouch
62 Powder puff
63 Quill
64 Razor
65 Rope
66 Salve or unguent
67-68 Scroll
69 Shaker
70 Sifter or strainer
71-72 Soap
73 Spigot
74 Spoon
75 Stopper
76-77 Statuette or figurine
78-79 Thread
80-82 Tinderbox (with flint and steel)
83 Towel
84 Tray
85 Trivet or tripod
86 Tureen
87-88 Twine
89 Missing Entry
90 Vase
91-92 Vial
93 Washcloth
94 Whetstone
95-96 Wig
97-98 Wool
99-00 Yarn

Container Contents

d100 Item
01-03 Ash
04-06 Bark
07-09 Bodily organs
10-14 Bones
15-17 Cinders
18-22 Crystals
23-26 Dust
27-28 Fibers
29-31 Gelatin
32-35 Grains
36-38 Grease
39-41 Husks
42-46 Leaves
47-54 Liquid, thin
55-59 Liquid, viscous
60-61 Lumps, unidentifiable
62-64 Oil
65-68 Paste
69-71 Pellets
72-84 Powder
85-86 Semiliquid suspension
87-88 Skin or hide
89-90 Spheres (metal, stone, or wood)
91-92 Splinters
93-94 Stalks
95-97 Strands
98-00 Strips

Books, Scrolls, and Tomes

d100 Contents
01-02 Account records
03-04 Alchemist's notebook
05-06 Almanac
07-08 Bestiary
09-11 Biography
12-14 Book of heraldry
15 Book of myths
16 Book of pressed flowers
17 Calendar
18-22 Catalog
23-24 Contract
25-27 Diary
28-29 Dictionary
30-32 Doodles or sketches
33 Forged document
34 Grammar workbook
35-36 Heretical text
37-41 Historical text
42-43 Last will and testament
44-45 Legal code
46-53 Letter
54 Lunatic's ravings
55 Magic tricks (not a spellbook)
56 Magic scroll
57-59 Map or atlas
60 Memoir
61-62 Navigational chart or star chart
63-64 Novel
65 Painting
66-67 Poetry
68-69 Prayer book
70 Property deed
71-74 Recipe book or cookbook
75 Record or a criminal trial
76 Royal proclamation
77-78 Sheet music
79 Spellbook
80 Text on armor making
81-82 Text on astrology
83-84 Text on brewing
85-86 Text on exotic flora or fauna
87-88 Text on herbalism
89-90 Text on local flora
91-92 Text on mathematics
93 Text on masonry
94 Text on medicine
95 Theological text
96 Tome of forbidden lore
97-99 Travelogue for an exotic land
00 Travelogue of the planes

World Building

NPC Building

1d20 Characteristic
1 Absentminded
2 Arrogant
3 Boorish
4 Chews Something
5 Clumsy
6 Curious
7 Dim Witted
8 Fiddles and Fidgets
9 Frequently uses wrong word
10 Friendly
11 Irritable
12 Prone to prediction of doom
13 Pronounced Scar
14 Slurs words, lisps, or stutters
15 Speaks loudly or whispers
16 Squints
17 Stares into distance
18 Suspicious
19 Uses colorful oaths and exclamations
20 Uses flowery speech or long words

NPC Ideals

Good Ideals

1d6 Ideal
1 Beauty
2 Charity
3 Greater Good
4 Life
5 Respect
6 Self-sacrifice

Evil Ideals

1d6 Ideal
1 Domination
2 Greed
3 Might
4 Pain
5 Retribution
6 Slaughter

Lawful Ideals

1d6 Ideal
1 Community
2 Fairness
3 Honor
4 Logic
5 Responsibility
6 Tradition

Chaotic Ideals

1d6 Ideal
1 Change
2 Creativity
3 Freedom
4 Independence
5 No Limits
6 Whimsy

Neutral Ideals

1d6 Ideal
1 Balance
2 Knowledge
3 Live and let live
4 Moderation
5 Neutrality
6 People

Other Ideals

1d6 Ideal
1 Aspiration
2 Discovery
3 Glory
4 Nation
5 Redemption
6 Self-knowing

NPC Bonds

1d10 Bonds
1 Dedicated to fullfill a personal goal
2 Protective of close family members
3 Protective of colleagues or compatriots
4 Loyal to a benefactor, patron or employer
5 Captivated by a romantic interest
6 Drawn to a special place
7 Protective of sentimental keepsake
8 Protective of valuable possession
9 Out for revenge
10 Roll 2 times (ignoring d10 result)

NPC Flaws and Secrets

1d20 Flaw or Secret
1 Forbidden love or susceptibility to romance
2 Enjoys decadent pleasure
3 Arrogance
4 Envies another creature
5 Overpowering greed
6 Prone to rage
7 Has powerful enemy
8 Specific Phobia
9 Shameful or scandalous story
10 Secret crime or misdeed
11 Possession of forbidden lore
12 Foolhardy bravery

Name Generator

1d20 Beginning Middle End
1 bar
2 ched -a
3 dell -ac
4 far -ai
5 A- gran -al
6 Be- hal -am
7 De- jen -an
8 El- kel -ar
9 Fa- lim -ea
10 Jo- mor -el
11 Ki- net -er
12 La- penn -ess
13 Ma- quill -ett
14 Na- rond -ic
15 O- sark -id
16 Pa- shen -il
17 Re- tur -in
18 Si- vash -is
19 Ta- yor -or
20 Va- zen -us

Building Encounters

You can use this process after you've already designed an encounter to determine its difficulty or you can use it to start an Encounter from scratch with a target difficulty in mind.

Step 1

Start by making a note of the Exp values that define the four difficulty categories for your group. For each adventurer in the party refer to the Encounter Difficulty Exp per Character table, noting the exp values for each character in each category. Then for each category add the exp values for each character in that category to determine the difficulty thresholds for encounters.

Step 2

Next, select each creature you want to include in your encounter. Add up their Exp Values, which can be found in their stat block next to their Challenge Rating, to get the encounter's Exp Value.

Step 3

Adjust the encounter Exp Value by the multiplier found in the Encounter Exp Multipliers table according to the size of the adventuring party.

Step 4

Compare the adjusted encounter Exp Value with the difficulty thresholds you calculated in Step 1 to get an estimate of the encounter's difficulty. Adjust the encounter accordingly.

Encounter Difficulty

Level Easy Med Hard Deadly
1 25 50 75 100
2 50 100 150 200
3 75 150 225 400
4 125 250 375 500
5 250 500 750 1100
6 300 600 900 1400
7 350 750 1100 1700
8 450 900 1400 2100
9 550 1100 1600 2400
10 600 1200 1900 2800
11 800 1600 2400 3600
12 1000 2000 3000 4500
13 1100 2200 3400 5100
14 1250 2500 3800 5700
15 1400 2800 4300 6400
16 1600 3200 4800 7200
17 2000 3900 5900 8800
18 2100 4200 6300 9500
19 2400 4900 7300 10900
20 2800 5700 8500 12700

Encounter EXP Multiplier

# of Enemies Party Size & Modifier
1-2 3-5 6+
Single Enemy x 1.5 - x .5
Pair x 2 x 1.5 -
Group (3-6) x 2.5 x 2 x 1.5
Gang (7-10) x 3 x 2.5 x 2
Mob (11-14) x 4 x 3 x 2.5
Horde (15+) x 5 x 4 x 3

Random Encounters

Area Roll 1d20...
Dangerous overworld area
  • Once per hour of travel.
  • Once per 20 minutes of Rest during the day.
  • Once at night.
Encounter on: 18­-20 or 19-20
Uncivilized, unsettled, or unknown overworld area
  • Once During the day.
  • Once per 20 minutes of Rest during the day.
  • Once at night.
Encounter on: 17-20 or 18-20
Well-Traveled overworld area
  • Once a day-night cycle
Encounter on: 20
Structure or formation populated by hostiles
  • Once per 15 minutes of rest or idle
Encounter on: 17-20 or 18-20

Size Categories

Size Space (ft) HP Examples
Tiny 2.5x2.5 d4 (2.5) Hawk, Imp, Rat, Sprite
Small 5x5 d6 (3.5) Giant rat, Goblin, Kobold
Medium 5x5 d8 (4.5) Gnoll, Orc, Werewolf
Large 10x10 d10 (5.5) Chimera, Hippogriff, Ogre
Huge 15x15 d12 (6.5) Cyclops, Fire Giant, Treant
Gargantuan 20+x20+ d10 (10.5) Ancient Dragon, Kraken

Adventuring Items List

Basic Armor

Light Armor
    Padded²5 gp118 lb.
    Leather10 gp1110 lb.
    Studded leather45 gp1213 lb.
Medium Armor
    Hide10 gp1212 lb.
    Chain shirt50 gp1320 lb.
    Scale mail²50 gp1445 lb.
    Breastplate400 gp1420 lb.
    Half plate²750 gp1540 lb.
Heavy Armor
    Ring mail²30 gp1440 lb.
    Chain mail²75 gp1655 lb.
    Splint²200 gp1760 lb.
    Plate²1,500 gp1865 lb.
    Shield10 gp+26 lb.
² Disadvantage on Dexterity (Stealth) checks

Basic Weapons

Simple Melee Weapons
    Club1 sp1d4 B2 lb.Li
    Dagger2 gp1d4 P1 lb.F, Li, Th Rg(20/60)
    Greatclub2 sp1d8 B10 lb.2H
    Handaxe5 gp1d6 S2 lb.Li, Th Rg(20/60)
    Javelin5 sp1d6 P2 lb.Th Rg(30/120)
    Light     hammer2 gp1d4 B2 lb.Li, Th Rg(20/60)
    Mace5 gp1d6 B4 lb.-
    Quarterstaff2 sp1d6 B4 lb.V(1d10)
    Sickle1 gp1d4 S2 lb.Li
    Spear1 gp1d6 P3 lb.Th Rg(20/60), V(1d8)
    Unarmed     strike1 B-
Simple Ranged Weapons
    Crossbow,     light25 gp1d8 P5 lb.A Rg(80/320), Ld, 2H
    Dart5 cp1d4 P1/4 lb.F, Th Rg(20/60)
    Shortbow25 gp1d6 P2 lb.A Rg(80/320), 2H
    Sling1 sp1d4 BA Rg(320)
Martial Melee Weapons
    Battleaxe10 gp1d8 S4 lb.V(1d10)
    Flail10 gp1d8 B2 lb.-
    Glaive20 gp1d10 S6 lb.H, Re, 2H
    Greataxe30 gp1d12 S7 lb.H, 2H
    Greatsword50 gp2d6 S6 lb.H, 2H
    Halberd20 gp1d10 S6 lb.H, Re, 2H
    Lance10 gp1d12 P6 lb.R, Sp
    Longsword15 gp1d8 S3 lb.V(1d10)
    Maul10 gp2d6 B10 lb.H, 2H
    Morningstar15 gp1d8 P4 lb.-
    Pike5 gp1d10 P18 lb.H, Re, 2H
    Rapier25 gp1d8 P2 lb.F
    Scimitar25 gp1d6 S3 lb.F, Li
    Shortsword10 gp1d6 P2 lb.F, Li
    Trident5 gp1d6 P4 lb.Th Rg(20/60), V(1d8)
    War pick5 gp1d8 P2 lb.-
    Warhammer15 gp1d8 B2 lb.V(1d10)
    Whip2 gp1d4 S3 lb.F, Re
Martial Ranged Weapons
    Blowgun10 gp1 P1 lb.A Rg(25/100), Ld
    Crossbow,     hand75 gp1d6 P3 lb.A Rg(30/120), Li, Ld
    Crossbow,     heavy50 gp1d10 P18 lb.A Rg(100/400), H, Ld, 2H
    Longbow50 gp1d8 P2 lb.A Rg(150,600), H, 2H
    Net1 gp3 lb.Sp, Th Rg(5/15)
* Properties Abbreviations Below:
    2H = Two Handed
    A = Ammunition
    F = Finesse Weapon
    H = Heavy Weapon
    Ld = Loading
    Li = Light Weapon
    Re = Reach
    Rg = Range
    Sp = Special
    Th = Thrown
    V = Versatile

Weapon Properties

You can use a weapon that has the ammunition property to make a ranged attack only if you have ammunition to fire from the weapon. Each time you attack with the weapon, you expend one piece of ammunition. Drawing the ammunition from a quiver, case, or other container is part of the attack. At the end of the battle, you can recover half your expended ammunition by taking a minute to search the battlefield.
When making an attack with a finesse weapon, you use your choice of your Strength or Dexterity modifier for the attack and damage rolls. You must use the same modifier for both rolls.
Small creatures have disadvantage on attack rolls with heavy weapons. A heavy weapon's size and bulk make it too large for a Small creature to use effectively.
A light weapon is small and easy to handle, making it ideal for use when fighting with two weapons.
Because of the time required to load this weapon, you can fire only one piece of ammunition from it when you use an action, bonus action, or reaction to fire it, regardless of the number of attacks you can normally make.
A weapon that can be used to make a ranged attack has a range shown in parentheses after the ammunition or thrown property. The range lists two numbers. The first is the weapon's normal range in feet, and the second indicates the weapon's maximum range. When attacking a target beyond normal range, you have disadvantage on the attack roll. You can't attack a target beyond the weapon's long range.
This weapon adds 5 feet to your reach when you attack with it.
A weapon with the special property has unusual rules governing its use, explained in the weapon's description (see "Special Weapons" later in this section).
If a weapon has the thrown property, you can throw the weapon to make a ranged attack. If the weapon is a melee weapon, you use the same ability modifier for that attack roll and damage roll that you would use for a melee attack with the weapon. For example, if you throw a handaxe, you use your Strength, but if you throw a dagger, you can use either your Strength or your Dexterity, since the dagger has the finesse property.
This weapon requires two hands to use.
This weapon can be used with one or two hands. A damage value in parentheses appears with the property—the damage when the weapon is used with two hands to make a melee attack.
Special Weapon (Lance)
You have disadvantage when you use a lance to attack a target within 5 feet of you. Also, a lance requires two hands to wield when you aren't mounted.
Special Weapon (Net)
A Large or smaller creature hit by a net is restrained until it is freed. A net has no effect on creatures that are formless, or creatures that are Huge or larger. A creature can use its action to make a DC 10 Strength check, freeing itself or another creature within its reach on a success. Dealing 5 slashing damage to the net (AC 10) also frees the creature without harming it, ending the effect and destroying the net.     When you use an action, bonus action, or reaction to attack with a net, you can make only one attack regardless of the number of attacks you can normally make.

Adventuring Gear

Abacus2 gp2 lb.
Acid (vial)25 gp1 lb.
Alchemist's fire (flask)50 gp1 lb.
    Arrows (20)1 gp1 lb.
    Blowgun needles (50)1 gp1 lb.
    Crossbow bolts (20)1 gp1½ lb.
    Sling bullets (20)4 cp1½ lb.
Antitoxin (vial)50 gp
Arcane focus
    Crystal10 gp1 lb.
    Orb20 gp3 lb.
    Rod10 gp2 lb.
    Staff5 gp4 lb.
    Wand10 gp1 lb.
Backpack2 gp5 lb.
Ball bearings (bag of 1,000)1 gp2 lb.
Barrel2 gp70 lb.
Basket4 sp2 lb.
Bedroll1 gp7 lb.
Bell1 gp
Blanket5 sp3 lb.
Block and tackle1 gp5 lb.
Book25 gp5 lb.
Bottle, glass2 gp2 lb.
Bucket5 cp2 lb.
Caltrops (bag of 20)1 gp2 lb.
Candle1 cp
Case, crossbow bolt1 gp1 lb.
Case, map or scroll1 gp1 lb.
Chain (10 feet)5 gp10 lb.
Chalk (1 piece)1 cp
Chest5 gp25 lb.
Climber's kit25 gp12 lb.
Clothes, common5 sp3 lb.
Clothes, costume5 gp4 lb.
Clothes, fine15 gp6 lb.
Clothes, traveler's2 gp4 lb.
Component pouch25 gp2 lb.
Crowbar2 gp5 lb.
Druidic focus
    Sprig of mistletoe1 gp
    Totem1 gp
    Wooden staff5 gp4 lb.
    Yew wand10 gp1 lb.
Fishing tackle1 gp4 lb.
Flask or tankard2 cp1 lb.
Grappling hook2 gp4 lb.
Hammer1 gp3 lb.
Hammer, sledge2 gp10 lb.
Healer's kit5 gp3 lb.
Holy symbol
    Amulet5 gp1 lb.
    Emblem5 gp
    Reliquary5 gp2 lb.
Holy water (flask)25 gp1 lb.
Hourglass25 gp1 lb.
Hunting trap5 gp25 lb.
Ink (1 ounce bottle)10 gp
Ink pen2 cp
Jug or pitcher2 cp4 lb.
Ladder (10-foot)1 sp25 lb.
Lamp5 sp1 lb.
Lantern, bullseye10 gp2 lb.
Lantern, hooded5 gp2 lb.
Lock10 gp1 lb.
Magnifying glass100 gp
Manacles2 gp6 lb.
Mess kit2 sp1 lb.
Mirror, steel5 gp1/2 lb.
Oil (flask)1 sp1 lb.
Paper (one sheet)2 sp
Parchment (one sheet)1 sp
Perfume (vial)5 gp
Pick, miner's2 gp10 lb.
Piton5 cp1/4 lb.
Poison, basic (vial)100 gp
Pole (10-foot)5 cp7 lb.
Pot, iron2 gp10 lb.
Potion of healing50 gp1/2 lb.
Pouch5 sp1 lb.
Quiver1 gp1 lb.
Ram, portable4 gp35 lb.
Rations (1 day)5 sp2 lb.
Robes1 gp4 lb.
Rope, hempen (50 feet)1 gp10 lb.
Rope, silk (50 feet)10 gp5 lb.
Sack1 cp1/2 lb.
Scale, merchant's5 gp3 lb.
Sealing wax5 sp
Shovel2 gp5 lb.
Signal whistle5 cp
Signet ring5 gp
Soap2 cp
Spellbook50 gp3 lb.
Spikes, iron (10)1 gp5 lb.
Spyglass1,000 gp1 lb.
Tent, two-person2 gp20 lb.
Tinderbox5 sp1 lb.
Torch1 cp1 lb.
Vial1 gp
Waterskin2 sp5 lb. (full)
Whetstone1 cp1 lb.


Artisan's tools
    Alchemist's supplies50 gp8 lb.
    Brewer's supplies20 gp9 lb.
    Calligrapher's supplies10 gp5 lb.
    Carpenter's tools8 gp6 lb.
    Cartographer's tools15 gp.6 lb.
    Cobbler's tools5 gp5 lb.
    Cook's utensils1 gp8 lb.
    Glassblower's tools30 gp5 lb.
    Jeweler's tools25 gp2 lb.
    Leatherworker's tools5 gp5 lb.
    Mason's tools10 gp8 lb.
    Painter's supplies10 gp5 lb.
    Potter's tools10 gp3 lb.
    Smith's tools20 gp8 lb.
    Tinker's tools50 gp10 lb.
    Weaver's tools1 gp5 lb.
    Woodcarver's tools1 gp5 lb.
Disguise kit25 gp3 lb.
Forgery kit15 gp5 lb.
Gaming set
    Dice set1 sp
    Dragonchess set1 gp1/2 lb.
    Playing card set5 sp
    Three-Dragon Ante set1 gp
Herbalism kit5 gp3 lb.
Musical instrument
    Bagpipes30 gp6 lb.
    Drum6 gp3 lb.
    Dulcimer25 gp10 lb.
    Flute2 gp1 lb.
    Lute35 gp2 lb.
    Lyre30 gp2 lb.
    Horn3 gp2 lb.
    Pan flute12 gp2 lb.
    Shawm2 gp1 lb.
    Viol30 gp1 lb.
Navigator's tools25 gp2 lb.
Poisoner's kit50 gp2 lb.
Thieves' tools25 gp1 lb.

Mounts and Vehicles

Item Cost Speed Carrying Capacity
Camel 50gp 50ft. 480 lb
Donkey or Mule 8gp 40ft. 420 lb
Elephant 200gp 40ft. 1320 lb
Horse,draft 50gp 40ft. 540 lb
Horse,riding 75gp 60ft. 480 lb
Mastiff 25gp 40ft. 195 lb
Pony 30gp 40ft. 225 lb
Warhorse 400gp 60ft. 540 lb

Tack, Harness, and Drawn Vehicles

Item Cost Weight
Barding x4 x2
Bit and bridle 2gp 1 lb
Carriage 100gp 600 lb
Cart 15gp 200 lb
Chariot 250gp 100 lb
Feed (per day) 5cp 10 lb
    Exotic 60gp 40 lb
    Military 20gp 30 lb
    Pack 5gp 15 lb
    Riding 10gp 25 lb
Saddlebags 4gp 8 lb
Sled 20gp 300 lb
Stabling (per day) 5sp -
Wagon 35gp 400 lb

Waterborne Vehicles

Item Cost Speed
Galley 30,000gp 4 mph
Keelboat 3,000gp 1 mph
Longship 10,000gp 3 mph
Rowboat 50gp 1.5 mph
Sailing Ship 10,000gp 2 mph
Warship 25,000gp 2.5 mph

Adventure Modules

Starter Set: Lost Mines of Phandelver

Lost Mine of Phandelver is an adventure for four to five characters of 1st level. During the course of the adventure, the characters will advance to 5th level. The adventure is set a short distance from the city of Neverwinter in the Sword Coast region of the Forgotten Realms setting. The Sword Coast is part of the North-a vast realm of free settlements surrounded by wilderness and adventure.

Part 1: Goblin Arrows

Here are the combat encounters and main traps for Part 1. Please note that the PCs can get to Phandelver before going to the Cragmaw Hideout. The adventure begins as the player characters are escorting a wagon full of provisions and supplies from Neverwinter to Phandalin.

Goblin Ambush

Encounter: Four goblins (hiding)
    • 2 Goblins Melee
    • 2 Goblins Ranged (30 ft.)
Goblin stealth modifier: +6
Notes: When 3 goblins are defeated, 1 attempts to flee down the goblin trail.

Goblin Trail

Trap: Snare
Perception Score Needed: 12 or higher
Dex Saving Throw: 10 or higher
On failed save:
• Character is hung upside down.
• 1d6 Bludgeoning damage if not lowered carefully.

Trap: Pit
Perception Score Needed: 15 or higher
Dex Saving Throw: 10 or higher
On failed save:
• Fall in taking 1d6 bludgeoning damage.
• No ability check is required to get out.

Cragmaw Hideout

The Cragmaw tribe of goblins has established a hideout from which it can easily harass and plunder traffic moving along the Triboar Trail or the path to Phandalin. The Cragrnaw tribe is so named because each member of the tribe sharpens its teeth so they appear fierce and jagged.

Goblin Blind

Combat: Two goblins
• Characters moving slowly and carefully may suprise the goblins.
• Thickets around the clearing provide half cover to creatures attacking through them


Combat: Three Wolves
• They can't reach targets on the steps.
• All 3 attack any creature, except a goblin
• Goblins inside the cave ignore the noises
• Calm the wolves with a DC 15 Animal Handling check. (This goes to 10 if they are given food.)


Combat: Goblin Guard
• A PC needs a perception check vs guard stealth check to see the guard.
• The goblin notices the PCs if they carry any light, or do no use stealth on approach
• Goblin signals companions to release flood, then throws javelins.

Goblin Den

Encounter: Six goblins (one leader with 12 HP)
Ordinary Goblins: Tending fire in lower (northern) section
Leader Goblin (Yeemik): Resting in upper (souther) part.
• When Yeemik sees the goblins are losing, he drags a human (Sildar) to the cliff and wants a truce.
• If they parley, Yeemik (supposedly) will release Sildar when they bring Klarg's head
• If they refuse parley, fight continues and Sildar is pushed off the cliff and is unconcious

Twin Pools Cave

Encounter: Three Goblins
• If the goblins were warned earlier by overpass goblin, these are ready for trouble.
• As soon as the fight starts, one goblin flees to warn Klarg

Klarg's Cave

Combat: 5 Total Creatures
    • Klarg (bugbear)
    • 1 wolf (Ripper)
    • 2 goblins
Fire Pit: Deals 1 damage to any that enter, or 1d6 to any who fall prone.
• If he is warned, everyone hides to try and suprise the PCs.
• If he isn't warned, they can be suprised (best through chimmney).
• If the wolf is killed, he attempts to flee through the chimmney.

Part 2: Phandalin

Here are the combat encounters and main traps for Part 2. Please note that there are many quests here and the Redbrand Hideout can be dealt with at a later time.

Redbrand Ruffians

Encounter: 4 Redband Ruffians
• The ruffians attack in a round or two if PCs don't.
• When three of them are down, the 4th flees toward Tresendar Manor.

Redbrand Hideout

If the PCs begin their search at the Manor, they start in area 1. If they follow Carp Alderleaf to the secret tunnel, they enter the dungeon at area 8.


Encounter: 3 Redband Ruffians
• If the ruffians hear noise from PCs in area one, they try for suprise attack

Trapped Hall

Trap: Pit
Perception Score Needed: 15 or higher
Dex Saving Throw: 15 or higher
On failed save:
• Fall in taking 2d6 bludgeoning damage and lands prone.
• If trap is found, PC needs DC 10 dex check to go around edges.

Tresendar Crypts

Encounter: 3 Skeletons
• These attack when anyone comes within 10 feet of the door leading to area 5 or 6 unless that creature is wearing the scarlet cloak of the Redbrands or speaks the password "Illefarn".

Slave Pens

Encounter: 2 Redbrand Ruffians
• If the ruffians hear fighting from area 5, they will try to surpise intruders.


Encounter: Nothic
• Lurks near west end of the bridges.
• If it sees people come in, it hides behind a stone pillar and watches them while trying to use its Weird Insight to discern characters' secrets.
• Communicates with telepathy if detected, and would rather negotiate and will betray Redbrands for the right incentives.

Guard Barracks

    • 3 bugbears
    • 1 goblin (Droop)
• The goblin (Droop) falls unconcious for 1d10 minutes when seeing the party.
• If the party is wearing scarlet cloaks the bugbears assume they server Iarno.
• DC 15 can convince the bugbears to do what the party wants.

Common Room

Encounter: 4 Redband Ruffians
• If the characters bust in through the room, they suprise the ruffians.
• The ruffians are poisoned from too much drinking.
• The ruffians recognize the party as imposters if they have the cloaks on.

Glasstaff's Quarters

Encounter: Evil Mage (Iarno)
• Iarno can be suprised if they come in from the secret passage in area 7, otherwise the rat familiar warns him of any who approach.
• If he isn't suprised, Iarno flees through the secret door in the northeast corner.
• If he manages to escape, he flees through area 1 from areas 7 and 8.
• Iarno instructs the nothic to waylay anyone that comes through if he makes it down there.

Part 3: The Spider's Web

Here are the combat encounters and main traps for Part 3. In this part of the adventure, the characters follow up on existing leads and lines of inquiry. They can't learn much more in Phandalin, so they need to set out into the forests and hills surrounding the town to uncover the larger plots they are caught up in.

Triboar Trail

During this part of the adventure, the characters will frequently be marching overland from one point of interest to another. As can be seen on the regional map, some of these areas are a good forty to fifty miles apart, requiring several days of marching overland to travel to the next adventure site.

Wilderness Encounters

Day RollNight RollResult
1-21-3Stirges (1d8+2)
-4Ghouls (1d4+1)
3-4-Orge (1)
5-65Goblins (1d6+3)
7-86Hobgoblins (1d4+2)
9-107-8Orcs (1d4+2)
119-10Wolves (1d4+2)
1211-12Owlbear (1)

Old Owl Well

Built thousands of years ago by a long-vanished empire, Old Owl Well is a ruined watchtower that now consists of little more than a few crumbling walls and the broken stump of a tower.

Entering Old Owl Well

    • 12 zombies
    • 1 evil mage (Hamun Kost)
• The zombies can't be seen, but can be smelled with passive perception of 10 or higher.
• If battle erupts, the evil mage erupts from his tent.
• DC 10 arcana check reveals tatoo as necromatic symbol.
• DC 10 history check reveals he is a Thay. A land where wizards tatoo their flesh with tatoos to represent school of magic.
• If anyone talks to Kost, he stops zombies from combat temprorarily.
• Kost is willing to strike a deal that advances his interests at helps the characters

Ruins of Thundertree

Near the place where the Neverwinter River emerges from Neverwinter Wood stands the abandoned village of Thundertree. Once, this was a prosperous community on the outskirts of the forest, wealthy from the work of its woodcutters and trappers.

Westernmost Cottage

Encounter: 2 Twig Blights
• Compare the stealth check of the blights to the perception scores of the characters to determine if the blights are spotted.
• Blights here do not attack on their own (only self-defense).

Blighted Cottages

Encounter: 6 Twig Blights (+2 more)
• Compare the stealth check of the blights to the perception scores of the characters to determine if the blights are spotted.
• One round after the attack starts, the two twig blights from room 1 join the fray.

The Brown Horse

Encounter: 4 Ash Zombies
• When living creatures enter, they stand from prone spending half their speed.

Blighted Farmhouse

Encounter: 8 Twig Blights
• Each round for 3 rounds, two twig blights head for the south doorway, while two more head for the north doorway.

Ruined Store

Encounter: 2 Giant Spiders
• They suprise any character whose passive perception is less than 17.

Trap: Webs
Athletics Check Needed: 10 or higher
On failed save:
• Creature is restratined in webs.
• DC 12 Strength check to break free rolled each round.
• Creature can cut its way free using a light weapon that deals slashing damage. The webs have AC 10 and 5HP.

Dragon's Tower

Encounter: Young Green Dragon (Venomfang)
• If the characters reduce the dragon to half HP, it climbs to the top of the tower and flies away.

Old Smithy

Encounter: 2 Ash Zombies
• When living creatures enter, they stand from prone spending half their speed.

Old Garrison

Encounter: 5 Ash Zombies
• They animate and attack if any living creature disturbs their rest.

Weaver's Cottage

Encounter: 6 Twig Blights
• Compare the stealth check of the blights to the perception scores of the characters to determine if the blights are spotted.

Dragon Cultists

Encounter: 6 Human Cultists
• 4 cultists stand guard (2 in each room), the others rest in the larger chamber.
• An alliance can be struck with the cultists through their leader, Favric.

Wyvern Tor

This crag is a prominent landmark in the rugged hills northeast of the Sword Mountains, and is easily visible from twenty miles away. People traveling along the Triboar Trail in the vicinity of Conyberry catch glimpses of Wyvern Tor to the south as they go.

Orc Camp

    • Lone Orc
    • Six Ordinary Orcs
    • 30 HP Orc (Brughor Axe-Biter)
    • Ogre (Gog)
• If the lone orc is quietly taken out, the party has a chance to suprise the others.
• Gog fights until slain, the other orcs fight until Brughor is slain in which they will flee.

Cragmaw Castle

Raised by a talented wizard-noble of old Phalorm, an ancient realm that once controlled much of the North, the stronghold consists of seven overlapping towers; however, its upper levels have long since collapsed to heaps of crumbling masonry. Only the ground floor is still sound enough to be habitable.

Trapped Hall

    • 3 Goblins (from area 4)
    • 4 Hobgoblins (from area 6)
• If the goblin sentries raised the alarm, the monsters above come out of the north and south doors at the same time. They attack from both directions trying to drive the adventurers out of the castle.

Trap: Tripwire
Perception Score Needed: 20 passive or 10 active
Dexterity Save: 10 (for half damage)
On failed save:
• Any creature in the area takes 3d6 bludgeoning damage.
• The noise alerts the monsters in areas 3,7,8, and 9.

Archer Post

    • 2 Goblins (first room)
    • 2 Goblins (second room)
• By taking turns shooting arrows and ducking back, both archers can fire each round at targets outside.
• When characters enter the room, the goblins drop their shortbows and draw their melee weapons.

Ruined Barracks

    • 2 Goblins (first room)
    • 2 Goblins (second room)
• By taking turns shooting arrows and ducking back, both archers can fire each round at targets outside.
• When characters enter the room, the goblins drop their shortbows and draw their melee weapons.
• Any loud noises here attract the attention of the goblins in area 7. One goblin comes to investigate the disturbance. If it doesn't return, or if it spots trouble, the others come to investigate.

Hobgoblin Barracks

Encounter: 4 Hobgoblins
• They don't pay attention to noise in other areas, but will respond to intruders or alarms raised by sentries.

Banquet Hall

    • 7 Goblins
    • 12 HP Goblin (Yegg)
• When Yegg is killed the other goblins flee through the east or west doors..

Dark Hall

Encounter: Grick
• Compare gricks stealth check to characters' perception check or passive scores to determine which of them is suprised.
• If combat erupts here, goblins in area 9 cannot be suprised.

Goblin Shrine

    • 12 HP Goblin (Lhupo)
    • 2 Goblins
• If the goblins heard the characters fighting in area 8, they hide behind the altar to suprise the adventurers.

Guard Barracks

Encounter: 2 Hobgoblins
• At the start of combat, one hobgoblin runs to area 14 to warn King Grol. It returns to combat 2 rounds later.

Owlbear Tower

Encounter: 1 Owlbear
• If a character throws food the owlbear will devour it, otherwise it attacks the first creature in the door.

King's Quarters

    • 45 HP Bugbear (King Grol)
    • 1 Wolf
    • Doppleganger as female drow (Vyerith)
• If the villians were warned, Vyerith hides behind the door to the northeast and King Grol holds Gundren hostage.

Part 4: Wave Echo Cave

Here are the combat encounters and main traps for Part 4. The adventurers now have the chance to aid Gundren, avenge his kin, and put a stop to the nefarious schemes of the Black Spider. And of course, the hoard of powerful magic rumored to be hidden in the mines is a rich prize.

Wandering Monsters

D12 RollResult
1-3Stirges (2d4)
4-5Ghouls (1d4)
6Gricks (1d4)
7-8Bugbears (1d4)
9Skeletons (1d6)
10Zombies (1d6)
11-12Ochre Jelly (1)
Encounter on 17-20

Cave Entrance

Open Pit:
DC Required 15 strength (athletics)
• Climbing up or down the wall without a rope requires a successful Strength (Athletics) check.
• Anyone failing the check takes 1d6 bludgeoning damage per 10 feet.

Mine Tunnels

Encounter: Ochre Jelly
• When the party enters this area, the jelly stalks the group waiting for an opportunity to attack a lone target.

Old Entrance

Encounter: 10 Stirges
• Any character not looking at the ceiling is suprised unless his or her passive Wisdom (Perception) score is higher than the stirges' Dexterity (stealth) check total (roll a dice once for all of them).
• Characters who aren't suprised hear a flapping noise as the stirges descend to attack.

Old Guardroom

Encounter: 9 Skeletons
• The round after characters enter, they begin to form.

South Barracks

Encounter: 3 Ghouls
• These ghouls attack immediately.

Fungi Cavern

Poison Gas:
DC Required 11 Constitution
On Failed Save:
• Anyone failing the save takes 3d6 poison damage and is poisoned for 10 minutes.
• The gas disperses after 1 minute, but any creature that ends its turn in the cavern must repeat the saving throw.

Great Cavern

Encounter: 7 Ghouls
• The escarpments are 10 feet high and require a DC12 Strength (Athletics) check to climb. A creature that falls or is knocked down takes 1d6 bludgeoning damage and is knocked prone.

North Barracks

Encounter: 5 Bugbears
• Nothing of importance.

Smelter Cavern

    • 8 Zombies
    • 1 Flameskull
• The zombies rise and pursue any living creatures entering the room, but do not pursue outside the room for more than 1 round.

Wizard's Cavern

Encounters: Mormesk the Wraith
• He rises out of the floor when a living creature enters the room.
• He can be reasoned with if they haven't harmed him, and haven't taken anything
• He will not part with the wooden pipe no matter what.
• It's best to offer him magic items (scrolls, spellbooks, arcane knowledge), along with a DC 10 Charisma (Persuasion) check.

Forge of Spells

Encounters: Spectator
• If the party tries to remove anything from the room, he attacks.
• A successful DC (Deception) check, can convince the spectator into thinking one or more party members are wizards or miners who work for the owners of Wave Echo Cave, sent to terminate specator's employment. On success, the spectator believes you and vanishes back to it's home plane.
• If the spectator is blinded, he vanishes to his home plane.

Collapsed Cavern

    • 3 Bugbears
    • Doppleganger (Vhalak)
• If a fight breaks out in the main cavern, the two bugbears in the rift climb up the ropes to join the fray.
• If two or more bugbears are killed, the doppleganger tries to retreat to area 19 to warn Nezznar.

Temple of Dumathoin

    • Nezznar the Black Spider
    • 4 giant spiders
    • Doppleganger (possible)
    • Creatures from room 18 (possible)
• If they are expecting the adventurers, the spiders hide behind the pillars and Nezznar casts invisibility on himself. Make a stealth check for the spiders. When intruders appear, the spiders try to entangle them in webs before closing to melee range.
• If creatures from room 18 can hear sounds in this room, they arrive 3 rounds after and act immediately.

Tyranny of Dragons

Hoard of the Dragon Queen

This is for adventurers of levels 1-8.

Greenest Encounters

d8 Encounter
1 6 kobolds
2 1 kobolds, 1 ambush drake
3 6 cultists
4 4 cultists and 1 guard
5 2 cultists and 1 acolyte*
6 3 guards and 1 acolyte*
7 1d6 townsfolk being hunted by raiders (roll a d6 to determine raiding group)
8 1d6 townsfolk hiding
* Acolytes have command prepared instead of sanctuary.

Wandering Monsters

d6 Encounter
1 4 kobolds
2 6 kobolds, 2 winged kobold
3 3 winged kobolds
4 5 winged kobolds
5 2 winged kobolds, 1 guard drake
6 2 ambush drakes

Hiring Out

d20 Result
0-5 No one is interested in hiring the character, but he or she can tag along as a traveler. Guards sometimes quit or die on the road and replacement has a chance to find employment.
6-10 Hired as a basic guard for 5 gp per tenday, plus food and living expenses on the road.
11-15 Hired as a sergeant for 8 gp per tenday, plus food and expenses on the road.
16+ Hired as a bodyguard for the merchant at 9 gp per tenday, plus food and expenses on the road.

Trade Way Events

d12 Event
1 Adventuring Life
2 Animal Abuse
3 Bane of the Mountains
4 Contraband
5 Everything Has a Price
6 Fungus Humongus
7 The Golden Hind
8 High Holy Day
9 No Room at the Inn
10 Roadside Hospitality
11 Spider Woods
12 Stranded

Encounters North of Waterdeep

d20 Encounter
1-14 No Encounter
15 12 Human Bandits
16 1 troll
17 4 orcs, 1 orge
18 2 ogre
19 3 lizardfolk and 3 giant lizards
20 6 lizardfolk
21 8 giant frogs
22 12 bullywugs

Mere of Dead Men Encounters

d12 Encounter
1-2 Bullywugs (2-3 per character)
3 Crocodiles (2 per character)
4 Giant frogs (2 per character)
5 Giant lizards (2 per character)
6 Giant Spiders (1 per character)
7-8 Lizardfolk (3 per 2 characters)
9 Quicksand
10 Shambling mound
11 Will-o-wisps (3)
12 Yuan-ti

The Rise of Tiamat

This is for adventurers of levels 8-15.
Coming Soon!

Elemental Evil

Princes of the Apocalypse

This is for adventurers of levels 1-15.
Coming soon!